Grand Exhibition: Gauguin

Date: 11 October 2017 to 22 January 2018

Venue: AU GRAND PALAIS A PARIS

PAUL GAUGUIN

On 8 May 1903, having lost a futile and fatally exhausting battle with colonial officials, threatened with a ruinous fine and an imprisonment for allegedly instigating the natives to mutiny and slandering the authorities, after a week of acute physical sufferings endured in utter isolation, an artist who had devoted himself to glorifying the pristine harmony of Oceania’s tropical nature and its people died. There is bitter irony in the name given by Gauguin to his house at Atuona – “Maison du Jouir” (House of Pleasure) – and in the words carved on its wood reliefs, Soyez amoureuses et vous serez heureuses (Be in love and you will be happy) and Soyez mystérieuses (Be mysterious).

Snow Effects (Snow in Rue Carcel), 1882-1883. Oil on canvas, 60 x 50 cm. Ny Carlsberg Glyptotek , Copenhagen.

In his regular report to Paris, the bishop wrote: “The only noteworthy event here has been the sudden death of a contemptible individual named Gauguin, a reputed artist but an enemy of God and everything that is decent.” It was only twenty years later that the artist’s name appeared on his tombstone, and even that belated honour was due to a curious circumstance: Gauguin’s grave was found by a painter belonging to the Society of American Fakirs.

Dieppe Beach, 1885. Oil on canvas, 38 x 46 cm. National Museum of Western
Art , Tokyo.

It was only due to the presence of a few travellers and colonists who knew something about art and to the ill-concealed greediness of his recent enemies who, for all their hate, did not shrink from making money on his works, that part of Gauguin’s artistic legacy escaped destruction. For example, the gendarme of Atuona who had personally supervised the sale and destroyed with his own hands some of the artist’s works which supposedly offended his chaste morals, was not above purloining a few pictures and later upon his return to Europe, opened a kind of Gauguin museum. As the result of all this, not one of Gauguin’s works remains in Tahiti.

The news of Gauguin’s death, which reached France with a four-month delay, evoked an unprecedented interest in his life and work. The artist’s words about posthumous fame came true. He shared the fate of many artists who received recognition when they could no longer enjoy it. Daniel de Monfreid predicted this in a letter written to Gauguin several months before his death: “In returning you will risk damaging that process of incubation which is taking place in the public’s appreciation of you.

Old Women in Arles (in the Arles Hospital Garden), 1888. Oil on canvas, 73 x 92 cm. Art Institute Chicago

You are now that unprecedented legendary artist, who from the furthest South Seas sends his disturbing, inimitable works, the definitive works of a great man who has, as it were, disappeared from the world. Your enemies – and like all who upset the mediocrity you have many enemies – are silent: they dare not attack you, do not even think of it. You are so far away. You should not return. You should not deprive them of the bone they hold in their teeth. You are already unassailable like all the great dead; you already belong to the history of art. ”

In the same year 1903, Ambroise Vollard exhibited at his Paris gallery about a hundred paintings and drawings by Gauguin. Some had been sent to him by the artist from Oceania, others had been purchased from various art dealers and collectors. In 1906, in Paris, a Gauguin retrospective was held at the newly opened Salon d’Automne. Two hundred and twenty-seven works (not counting those listed in the catalogue without numbers) were put on display – painting, graphic art, pottery, and woodcarving. Octave Maus, the leading Belgian art critic, wrote on this occasion: “Paul Gauguin is a great colourist, a great draughtsman, a great decorator; a versatile and self-confident painter.”

Café at Arles, 1888. Oil on canvas, 72 x 92 cm. Pushkin Museum of Fine Arts , Moscow

When it comes to the question of accepting or rejecting his artistic credo or of determining his place in art, the different, even mutually exclusive views expressed by different generations of researchers with different aesthetic tastes are quite justified. Some experts see Gauguin as a destroyer of realism who denounced traditions and paved the way for “free art”, be it Fauvism, Expressionism, Surrealism or Abstractionism. Others, on the contrary, think that Gauguin continued the European artistic tradition. Some contemporaries reacted to his departure from Europe with mistrust and suspicion, for they believed that a true artist could and must work only on his native soil and not derive inspiration from an alien culture. Pissarro, Cézanne and Renoir shared this opinion, for example. They considered Gauguin’s borrowings from the stylistics of Polynesian culture to be a kind of plunder.

To get a better insight into the life and the work of Gauguin, continue this exciting adventure by clicking on: GauguinGrand Palais , Amazon UK , Amazon US , iTunes , Google , Amazon Australia , Amazon Italy , Amazon Japan , Amazon China , Amazon India , Amazon Mexico , Amazon Spain , Amazon France , Amazon Canada , Kobo , Scribd , Overdrive , Kobo  , Douban , Dangdang

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